The ecological principals that are addressed in the Circular Economy approach are similar as in methodologies such as cradle to cradle, biomimicry or the natural step, all aiming to use natural resources much smarter and more effective. The big difference of the Circular Economy approach is that the starting point is economic value creation with the improvement of the ecological aspects as a derivative and not the other way around.
Key characteristics of the Circular Economy approach are customer access over ownership, (pay for performance e.g. pay per lux or pay per scan), business model innovations (from transactions to relationships via service and solution models), reverse cycles (including partners outside current value chains e.g. upstream-downstream integration and co-creation), innovations for material-, component-, and product reuse, products designed for disassembly and serviceability.